Male Breast Reduction/Gynecomastia

Male Breast Reduction

Male breast reduction is the surgical correction of gynecomastia, a common condition that is characterized by the over-development of male breast tissue. Enlargement can be seen in one or both breasts, and is more common in teenagers and older men.

Men like women have breast tissues, butthey are underdeveloped due to specific male hormones. Gynecomastia is characterized by excess fat or glandular tissue or both, and can develop when there is an imbalance in these hormones. Other reasons for the abnormal growth of breast include birth defects, obesity, certain diseases like liver failure and cancer, excess alcohol, certain drugs like anabolic steroids, or sagging skin due to sudden weight loss.

Breast enlargement can be an emotional burden and can impair the self-confidence in men. Reduction mammaplastyis an optiontonot only reduce the size of breasts, but also improve the shape.


The following are the indications for male breast surgery:

  • Physically healthy
  • Relatively normal weight
  • Development of breast has stabilized
  • Alternative treatments have failed
  • No life-threatening condition that can hinder healing
  • Non-smoker and non-drug user

Surgical procedure

The surgery takes two hours and is performed under intravenous sedation or general anesthesia. Your surgeon will mark the region to be treated.Surgery can involve liposuction or excision depending on the presence of excess fat or glandular tissue.


Your surgeon will make a cut around the areola and removes the excess fatty tissue through the process of liposuction. Liposuction involves a cannula (thin hollow tube) which is inserted through small incisions and moved in a controlled pattern to loosen the excess fat. The fat is then sucked out through vacuum suction. Next, your surgeon will drain out additional blood and fluid through small drainage tubes.


Your surgeon will suggest excision technique when excess glandular breast tissue or skin has to be removed. An incision is made around the areola and the underlying glandular tissue is removed. This method not only flattens the breast, but also reduces the size of the areola and repositions the nipple. Some cases of gynecomastia require the use of both, liposuction and excision.

Post-operative Care

After the procedure, your surgeon will apply dressings on the incisions and cover it with an elastic bandage to reduce swelling and promote healing. You may have to remain in the hospital overnight. You can resume work in a week, but will have to refrain from strenuous exercises or lifting heavy weights for one month, and exposing the scar tissue to the sun for a minimum of 6 months.

Risks and complications

As with any surgery, reduction mammaplasty involves risks and potential complications.These include:

  • Temporary or permanent change in nipple or breast sensation
  • Scars
  • Pain, infection, bleeding and blood clots
  • Loose skin, uneven breast contour, irregular pigmentation, fluid loss or accumulation(with liposuction)
  • Death of deep skin fatty tissue
  • Damage to underlying blood vessels, nerves, muscles and lungs
  • Cardiac and pulmonary complications

Male Gynaecomastia

Male gynaecomastia is an abnormal condition characterized by breast enlargement in males. Occasionally they may also secrete milk. This condition may also be seen in neonates, adolescents and elderly individuals, as a part of physiological changes.

Male gynaecomastia can affect one or both breasts. Generally gynaecomastia does not produce any harmful effect on the body but it may induce undue stress and embarrassment that can impact the active sex life of the affected individual. Male gynaecomastia can also cause psychological damage or loss of self-esteem in adolescents.

Causes of male gynaecomastia

Based on the physiological and pathological factors responsible for gynaecomastia, the common causes of gynaecomastia have been listed below:


The physiological changes responsible for gynaecomastia are commonly seen in the following age groups:

  • Newborn: Due to the presence of maternal hormones circulating in blood
  • Adolescence: Due to hormonal changes which are temporary and may disappear as the hormonal levels stabilize
  • Increased age and weight: Production of testosterone declines with age while fat cells stimulate the secretion of female hormone oestrogen


The various pathological causes of gynaecomastia are as follows:

  • Certain medication such as oral contraceptive pills, antipsychotics and anabolic steroids cause gynecomastia as a side effect
  • Increased levels of oestrogen due to various conditions such as obesity, hyperthyroidism, malnourishment, adrenal tumours and testicular tumours
  • Decreased or lack of testosterone production due to conditions such as klinefelter’s syndrome, viral orchitis and renal failure
  • Chronic kidney or liver disease
  • HIV infection
  • Chronic illness

In some cases gynaecomastia may be induced secondary to spinal cord injury or re-feeding after starvation; however, the underlying cause for this form of gynaecomastia remains unknown.


The diagnosis of gynaecomastia includes a physical examination of the patient, by the physician. Occasionally a mammogram may be ordered to confirm the diagnosis of gynaecomastia. Certain blood tests may also be conducted to evaluate the underlying cause of gynaecomastia.


The non-surgical methods employed for management of gynaecomastia include:

  • In case of drug induced gynaecomastia, replacement of the offending drug with an alternative and safer medication
  • Medical treatment of the underlying disease conditions causing gynaecomastia

In patients not responding to non-surgical options, surgery is considered as the last option. The surgical methods for management of gynaecomastia include:

  • Liposuction
  • Gland excision
  • Skin sculpture
  • Reduction mammoplasty
  • Combination of the surgical techniques mentioned above

The basic steps involved in surgery are as follows:

  • The surgery can be performed under general or local anesthesia.
  • The patient is anesthetized.
  • A small incision is made below the areola region of the breast.
  • Excessive breast tissue is surgically removed.
  • Excessive fat is removed by liposuction.
  • The incision is sutured

Normally the surgery takes about 90 minutes. After surgery patients are often advised to wear an elastic pressure garment or ace bandage that promotes healing. Patients are also advised on rehabilitation exercises for at least 3 weeks and can return to normal activities in 6 weeks.


The common complications associated with gynaecomastia surgery include:

  • Infection
  • Change in position or shape of the nipple
  • Numbness
  • Swelling
  • Bruising
  • Scarring
  • Hematoma (accumulation of blood)
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